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Type 1 diabetics Mortality rate is high

Type 1 diabetics Mortality rate is high

Mostly diagnosed in children and young persons, type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease and the mortality rate is quite high as compared to the type 2 diabetes. Though we are moving towards advancement day by day but is it changing the mortality rate of type 1 diabetics? If it is, is the mortality rate increasing or decreasing? Let’s find out.

Type 1 diabetes mortality rate is high

According to a study that was done over 27000 persons with type 1 diabetes in Sweden and was published in The Lancet, half of the type 1 diabetics were diagnosed before the age of 14. This results in higher risks of cardio-vascular diseases due to uncontrolled blood sugar levels. Eventually, the mortality rate of a t1 diabetic increases due to the long-term complications. Hence, they are recommended to follow cardio-protective measures to avoid these complications and heart diseases.

If we compare the years of life expected to live by a type 1 diabetics with a normal human being, an average difference of 16 years is found. Type 1 diabetics are expected to live 16 years shorter life on an average. However, these are the numbers if a person is diagnosed in the childhood. A person who is diagnosed at an older age (after 35) has life-expectancy of 10 years shorter as compared to normal persons without diabetes.

Few years back, everyone does knew about all the complications and higher mortality ratio of type 1 diabetes but age factor was unknown. Now, the modern sciences have pointed out that if you have developed type 1 diabetes early in the childhood, you should be aware of all its complications.

The number of cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus reported increasing every year by 3% since 1980. Moreover, t1d is known as the second most chronic disease (a disease without permanent treatment) developed in children and that too mostly under 20 years.

A child who has developed type 1 diabetes should not be underestimated as minor carelessness can put negative impact on his/her health and life. They may face health issues including premature cardio-vascular disease.

Increase life-expectancy and fight mortality in young type 1 diabetics

When type 1 diabetes is developed at a young age (under 20), the chances of shorter life-expectancy are much higher than those who develop it between ages 26-30. Likewise, the rate of mortality at young age is high mostly for those who have developed it before the age of 14. The main reason is because they have to pay attention to their blood sugar levels and diet for 10-15 years more than those who develop it after 26 years. Children usually find it very difficult to control the diet because they are not mature enough to understand the consequences. This leads to long-term complications.

Professor Sattar explains that if type 1 is developed by young children, the need of cardio-protective drugs like Statins etc. at age 30-40 years is maximum. Statins or other blood pressure lowering medications can be very useful to lower the risk of cardio-vascular disease or heart attack.

Statistics show that only 10-20% of the overall type 1 diabetics are taking cardio-protective medications at the age of 40 and therefore the consequences for rest of the 80% are not good. But as we are moving towards more technological era every day, better solutions keep coming that helps young t1d to control blood sugar levels.

Death ratio of type 1 diabetics from cardio-vascular disease comparison

Here is the table showing the ratio of death of type 1 diabetics caused by cardio-vascular disease or caused by other reasons in terms of controlled and uncontrolled HbA1c level.

Mean HbA1cDeath from cardio-vascular diseaseDeath other than cardio-vascular disease
≤ 6.9%2.92 (95%CI: 2.07-4.13)2.36 (95%CI: 1.97-2.83)
7.0%-7.8%3.39 (95%CI: 2.49-4.61)2.38 (95%CI: 2.02-2.80)
7.9%-8.7%4.44 (95%CI: 3.32-5.96)3.11 (95%CI: 2.66-3.62)
8.8%-9.6%5.35 (95%CI: 3.94-7.26)3.65 (95%CI: 3.11-4.30)
≥ 9.7%10.46 (95%CI: 7.62-14.37)8.51 (95%CI: 7.24-10.01)

Facts about Mortality rate of t1 diabetics

So far we have discussed that the mortality rate of type 1 diabetics is higher because of the early development but late diagnose. This causes long-term complications due to uncontrolled blood sugar levels for 5-10 years. This is why, research shows that the risk of cardio-vascular and coronary disease increases by five times when type 1 is diagnosed before the age of 10 rather than those who develop it at the age of 26-30 years or later.

If we talk about males and females separately, the studies show that the risk of heart disease in those women who have developed it at age of 10 or earlier is 60 times higher and risk of heart attack is 90 times higher as compared to the risk in the women of general population. Whereas, in men who have developed it at age 10 or before has 15 times higher risk of developing heart attack and 17 times more risk of developing heart diseases as compared to the men in general population.

Life expectancy of early developed type 1 diabetics

According to the research, on an average, a type 1 diabetic has 16 years shorter life as compared to the non-diabetic persons in the general population. If we separately see the life-expectancy of each gender, males have 14 years shorter life and females have 18 years shorter life-expectancy as compared to the general population. See life expectancy table below.

 Life Expectancy (Average)
General population (non-diabetic)85.9 years
Male (non-diabetic)83.3 years
Male (type 1 diabetic)69.1 years
Female (non-diabetic)88.6 years
Female (type 1 diabetic)70.9 years

Conclusion:

Why Type 1 diabetics has high mortality rate?

Today we explained why Type 1 diabetics have high mortality rate. Type 1 diabetes also called juvenile diabetes because it is developed in young persons, mostly below the age of 14. The risk of type 1 diabetics having cardio-vascular or heart disease is very high as compared to those of general population. T1 diabetic’s men have around 14 years shorter life-expectancy whereas t1 diabetic’s women have 18 years shorter life-expectancy as compared to non-diabetics. Blood sugar levels needs to be in control and cardio-protective drugs are recommended between age 30-40 in order to lower the heart attack or cardio-vascular disease risk and increase life-expectancy.

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